Diode is an electronic device made of semiconductor materials (silicon, selenium, germanium, etc.). It has unidirectional conductivity, that is, when a forward voltage is applied to the diode anode, the diode is turned on. When a reverse voltage is applied to the anode and cathode, the diode is cut off. Therefore, the on and off of the diode is equivalent to the on and off of the switch.
Zener diode, also known as zener diode. Using the reverse breakdown state of PN junction, its current can change in a large range and the voltage is basically unchanged, a diode with voltage stabilizing effect is made.  This diode is a semiconductor device with high resistance until the critical reverse breakdown voltage At this critical breakdown point, the reverse resistance decreases to a small value. In this low resistance region, the current increases and the voltage remains constant. The zener diode is divided according to the breakdown voltage. Because of this characteristic, the zener tube is mainly used as a voltage regulator or voltage reference element. Zener diodes can be connected in series for use at higher voltage. Higher stable voltage can be obtained by connecting in series.
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